Earth’s climate will continue to warm until emissions of CO2 reach zero. This will require a global transformation of the world economy to balance the need for decarbonization with the alleviation of extreme poverty and a more equitable distribution of economic opportunity.
The keys to this transformation are (1) energy efficency and (2) abundant clean energy.
Efficiency leads to enormous cost savings which provide financial opportunities for investments in clean energy infrastructure. Generation of carbon-free electricity and electrification of almost everything are critical ingredients of a clean energy future. Balancing supply and demand will require long distance transmission and an expansion of energy storage.